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The Product Manager’s Playbook: Managing Technical Debt without Compromising on Features


In the bustling corridors of today’s tech companies, Product Managers stand at the crossroads of innovation and sustainability. Their role, often glamorized by the launch of shiny new features, is as much about looking forward as it is about looking inward. And one of the most persistent internal challenges they face? Managing technical debt.

The Dual Challenge of Feature Delivery and Technical Debt

Every Product Manager knows the thrill of releasing a new feature. It’s the culmination of market research, user feedback, design, and development. It’s the tangible manifestation of innovation. However, in the race to stay ahead of competitors and meet user demands, there’s a hidden cost that often gets overlooked – technical debt.

Technical debt, much like its financial counterpart, refers to the “cost” incurred when quick and easy solutions are chosen over the right ones. It’s the shortcuts in code, the temporary fixes, and the outdated libraries. And while these might not pose an immediate problem, over time, they accumulate, making the system more complex, less efficient, and more prone to errors.

The Perils of Ignoring Technical Debt

So, why should Product Managers, often focused on strategy and user experience, concern themselves with something as technical as code debt? Because it directly impacts the product’s health and the team’s ability to deliver future innovations.

Imagine trying to build a skyscraper on a shaky foundation. No matter how impressive the architecture, it’s always at risk of collapsing. Similarly, a product built on a codebase riddled with technical debt might look great on the outside but is always one step away from a major breakdown.

Moreover, as this debt accumulates, it slows down feature delivery. What could have been a simple feature addition becomes a complex task, as developers navigate through a maze of legacy code and patches. This not only delays releases but also increases the chances of introducing new bugs.

The Imperative of Addressing Technical Debt

Addressing technical debt is not just a developer’s responsibility; it’s a strategic imperative for Product Managers. By ensuring that the product’s foundation is solid, they pave the way for faster, more efficient feature delivery in the future. It’s about playing the long game – sacrificing a bit of the present for a more sustainable future.

Furthermore, in a world where user expectations are sky-high, and patience is low, ensuring that your product runs smoothly is paramount. Addressing technical debt proactively can lead to better user experiences, fewer bugs, and, ultimately, higher user retention.

In the subsequent sections, we’ll delve deeper into strategies and best practices to manage this debt, ensuring that your product remains robust and ready for the challenges of tomorrow. But for now, remember this – in the world of product management, innovation and maintenance are two sides of the same coin. And as Product Managers, it’s our job to ensure that both get their due.

Understanding Technical Debt

In the vast landscape of product development, there’s a silent force that often goes unnoticed but has profound implications on a product’s health and a team’s efficiency. This force is known as technical debt.

Defining Technical Debt

At its core, technical debt is a metaphor. Just as one might incur financial debt by borrowing money, teams incur technical debt by making compromises in their codebase. These compromises might be intentional, due to time constraints or business pressures, or unintentional, stemming from lack of knowledge or oversight.

Ward Cunningham, who first introduced the term, described it as the cost of additional work that arises when we opt for a short-term technical solution rather than a better, more comprehensive one. It’s the “interest” that accumulates when we “borrow time” by implementing quick fixes.

Types of Technical Debt

Technical debt isn’t a monolithic entity. It can manifest in various forms:

  1. Code Debt: Resulting from poor coding practices or standards.
  2. Design Debt: Arising from suboptimal system or software design.
  3. Testing Debt: When adequate testing isn’t performed, leading to undiscovered bugs.
  4. Documentation Debt: Insufficient or outdated documentation that doesn’t reflect the current state of the system.
  5. Infrastructure Debt: Using outdated or suboptimal infrastructure or tools.

The Accumulation of Technical Debt

Much like a snowball rolling downhill, technical debt tends to accumulate over time. A small compromise today can lead to a series of additional compromises in the future. For instance, a piece of hard-coded data might save time in the short run, but as the system grows, it can lead to multiple patches and workarounds, each adding to the debt.

Factors contributing to the accumulation include:

  • Rapid Development Cycles: Pushing features quickly to meet deadlines.
  • Lack of Code Reviews: Missing opportunities to catch and rectify issues early.
  • Changing Requirements: Evolving business needs leading to changes in already implemented features.

The Consequences of Ignoring Technical Debt

Unchecked technical debt has tangible repercussions:

  • Slower Feature Releases: As the codebase becomes more convoluted, adding new features becomes a Herculean task.
  • Decreased Product Quality: A product built on shaky foundations is prone to bugs and performance issues.
  • Lower Team Morale: Continuously dealing with the repercussions of past decisions, rather than innovating, can demotivate and exhaust development teams. It’s like constantly putting out fires instead of building something new.

In essence, while technical debt might seem like a backend concern, its implications ripple across the product lifecycle, affecting user experience, business outcomes, and team dynamics.

The Product Manager’s Role in Managing Technical Debt

In the intricate dance of product development, Product Managers (PMs) play a pivotal role. They’re not just the strategists envisioning the product’s future but also the guardians of its present state. And one of the most nuanced aspects of this guardianship is managing technical debt.

The Confluence of Strategy and Execution

Every product decision has technical implications. Whether it’s adding a new feature, revamping the user interface, or integrating third-party tools, there’s a technical dimension to it. As a PM, understanding this intersection between product strategy and technical execution is crucial. It’s not just about what can be done but also about how it should be done, considering both immediate goals and long-term sustainability.

Why Technical Debt Matters to Product Managers

At first glance, technical debt might seem like a concern best left to developers. But in reality, its tentacles reach far and wide, affecting various facets of a product:

  • User Experience: A product riddled with technical debt might suffer from performance issues, bugs, or suboptimal functionalities, leading to user frustration.
  • Operational Costs: Over time, the cost of maintaining a product with high technical debt can skyrocket. Every new feature or change might require significantly more resources than it should.
  • Feature Release Delays: With a convoluted codebase, even minor feature additions can become major undertakings, leading to delays and missed market opportunities.

Bridging the Gap with Engineering Teams

One of the PM’s primary responsibilities is to serve as a bridge between the business and technical sides of a product. This involves:

  1. Open Communication: Regularly discussing the state of the codebase with the engineering team, understanding potential areas of debt, and the implications of adding new features.
  2. Joint Prioritization: Working with engineers to prioritize technical debt reduction alongside feature development. This might involve making tough decisions, like delaying a feature to address pressing technical issues.
  3. Setting Clear Expectations: Ensuring that stakeholders, from top management to marketing teams, understand the importance of addressing technical debt and setting realistic timelines for feature releases.

In essence, as a Product Manager, your role isn’t just about charting the product’s future but also ensuring its present is robust. By actively managing technical debt, you lay the foundation for a product that’s not just feature-rich but also sustainable and efficient in the long run.

Strategies for Balancing Technical Debt and Feature Delivery

In the dynamic realm of product management, juggling the demands of feature delivery with the necessity of managing technical debt is a daily challenge. But with the right strategies, you can strike a balance that ensures both innovation and sustainability. Let’s delve into actionable ways to use prioritization frameworks to achieve this delicate balance:

Prioritization Frameworks

Effective prioritization is the cornerstone of managing both technical debt and feature delivery. By systematically evaluating tasks, you can allocate resources where they’re needed most. Here are two tried-and-true frameworks to guide your decisions:

The Eisenhower Matrix

The Eisenhower Matrix is a simple yet powerful tool to categorize tasks based on their urgency and importance and is a common prioritisation method. Here’s a description of each of the quadrants in the matrix:

  1. Quadrant I: Urgent and Important
    • Description: Tasks in this quadrant are both urgent and important. They demand immediate attention and often come with consequences if not addressed promptly.
    • Examples: Critical bugs, security vulnerabilities, system outages, or any technical debt that’s causing significant disruptions.
    • Action: Address these tasks immediately.
  2. Quadrant II: Not Urgent but Important
    • Description: Tasks here are important for long-term success but don’t have immediate deadlines. This quadrant is strategic and proactive. Addressing tasks here can prevent them from moving to Quadrant I.
    • Examples: Refactoring, code quality improvements, architectural changes, documentation, and preventive maintenance.
    • Action: Schedule regular time to work on these tasks. They might not seem pressing, but addressing them can prevent bigger issues in the future.
  3. Quadrant III: Urgent but Not Important
    • Description: These tasks seem to demand immediate attention, but they don’t significantly contribute to long-term goals or values. They can often be distractions.
    • Examples: Minor bugs, some emails or meetings, small enhancements that a stakeholder insists are “urgent” but don’t align with strategic goals.
    • Action: Delegate when possible. If they can’t be delegated, set specific times to address them but don’t let them overshadow Quadrant II tasks.
  4. Quadrant IV: Neither Urgent nor Important
    • Description: Tasks in this quadrant are neither urgent nor important. They don’t contribute to the long-term vision or immediate needs.
    • Examples: Nice-to-have features, tasks based on outdated requirements, or any work that doesn’t align with current goals.
    • Action: Consider eliminating or postponing these tasks. They can consume time and resources without adding real value.

How to use the Eisenhower Matrix to manage technical debt and features:

  1. List Tasks: Start by listing all the technical debt items and features you need to address.
  2. Categorize: Place each item in one of the four quadrants based on its urgency and importance.
  3. Prioritize: Focus on Quadrant I tasks first, as they are both urgent and important. Dedicate time for Quadrant II tasks, as they are crucial for long-term success. Handle Quadrant III tasks as they come, and consider eliminating or postponing Quadrant IV tasks.
  4. Review Regularly: The nature of tasks can change over time. What’s considered “Not Urgent but Important” today might become “Urgent and Important” in the future. Regularly review and adjust your quadrants.
  5. Visualize: Use a physical board, digital tool, or even a simple paper to visualize the quadrants. This helps in getting a clear picture of where your priorities lie.

The Eisenhower Matrix is effective because it not only helps in prioritizing tasks but also in understanding the difference between what’s truly important and what just seems urgent. By focusing on Quadrant II tasks, teams can proactively address issues before they become emergencies, leading to a more sustainable and efficient work environment.

The RICE Scoring Method for Feature Prioritization

RICE is a popular scoring system that helps Product Managers evaluate which features will offer the most value relative to the effort required.

Here’s RICE defined:

  1. Reach: How many users will this task impact over a specific period, e.g., a quarter? For technical debt, consider how many parts of the system or how many team members are affected by the debt. For features, consider how many users will benefit from the feature. This can be measured in number of people reached, but it’s more common to measure it on a scale from 1 to 10, where 10 has the highest reach.
  2. Impact: If a user is affected, how much will this task impact them? For technical debt, the impact might be measured in terms of system performance, stability, or security. For features, it might be about the value or benefit the user derives. Impact is typically rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 means minimal impact and 10 for very-high impact.
  3. Confidence: How confident are you about your estimates for Reach and Impact? It’s rare to have full confidence, so this helps account for uncertainty. Confidence is usually expressed on a scale from 1 to 10, which can be translated into percentage. For instance:
    • 20% for a low confidence estimate
    • 50% for a medium confidence estimate
    • 100% for a very-high confidence estimate
  4. Effort: How many hours will this task require from the team? For technical debt, this could be the effort required to refactor a piece of code or address a critical security issue. For features, it’s the effort to design, develop, test, and deploy. Again, this can be measured on a scale from 1 to 10, or you can measure it in terms of work-hours, work-weeks, etc.

The RICE score is then calculated as: RICE Score = (Reach × Impact × Confidence) / Effort.

When using the RICE method, the most important thing is to stay consistent in terms of estimating. For example, when you’re estimating effort, you don’t want to use work-hours for one feature, and a scale on 1 to 10 on another feature, because that will skew your prioritisation.

Using RICE for Technical Debt and Features:

When using RICE to balance technical debt and feature delivery:

  1. List All Items: Start by listing all tasks, both technical debt and new features.
  2. Score Each Item: Assign Reach, Impact, Confidence, and Effort scores to each task based on the criteria mentioned above.
  3. Calculate RICE Scores: Use the formula to get a RICE score for each task.
  4. Prioritize: Tasks with the highest RICE scores should be prioritized. These are tasks that provide the most value for the least effort.
  5. Re-evaluate Regularly: As with any prioritization method, it’s essential to revisit and re-evaluate tasks regularly. The landscape can change, new technical debt can emerge, and business priorities can shift.

By integrating one of these prioritization frameworks into your product management workflow, you’ll be better equipped to make informed decisions that cater to both immediate needs and long-term product health.

Regular Debt Review Sessions

In the ever-evolving world of product management, staying proactive is the key to success. One of the most effective ways to manage technical debt while ensuring smooth feature delivery is by instituting Regular Debt Review Sessions. These sessions serve as a dedicated space to assess, prioritize, and strategize on addressing technical debt. Though, these review session are mostly relevant for products which are high in complexity and where technical debt is a constant and significant consideration. For less complex and impacted products, these review sessions might not be relevant as they can be taken care of during the sprint planning or sprint reviews events.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to making these sessions actionable and impactful:

1. Schedule Consistent Review Sessions

  • Frequency: Depending on the pace of your development cycle, set up weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly sessions. For agile teams with rapid sprints and complex products, weekly sessions might be more appropriate.
  • Duration: Allocate a fixed duration, say 45 minutes, ensuring there’s ample time to discuss without causing meeting fatigue.
  • Calendar Invites: Use calendar tools to set recurring invites, ensuring all stakeholders are aware and can plan their schedules around it.

2. Involve the Right Stakeholders

  • Engineering Team: They provide insights into the technical aspects, potential challenges, and estimated effort.
  • Design Team: Sometimes, technical debt can arise from design decisions. Their perspective can help in understanding and addressing such issues.
  • Business Stakeholders: Their input can help in understanding the business implications of technical debt and prioritizing accordingly.

3. Go Through the Agenda

  • Opening Review: Start with a brief recap of the decisions and action items from the previous session.
  • Debt Assessment: Discuss new technical debts that have arisen since the last meeting. This could be due to new features, changes in existing features, or any other technical decisions.
  • Prioritization: Rank the technical debts using the prioritisation methods presented earlier.
  • Action Plan: Decide on the steps to address the prioritized debts before the next session.

Tools for Managing Technical Debt

Jira for Managing Technical Debt

Here are some different things that you can do to manage technical debt if you are using Jira:

  • Custom Issue Types:
    • Create a custom issue type specifically for technical debt. This allows you to segregate technical debt from other tasks like new features or bugs, making it easier to track and manage.
  • Custom Fields:
    • Add custom fields to the technical debt issue type to capture additional information, such as the cause of the debt, its impact, and the estimated effort to resolve it.
  • Labels and Components:
    • Use labels to categorize technical debt, such as “Code Refactoring,” “Deprecated Libraries,” or “Performance Issues.”
    • Components can be used to associate technical debt with specific parts of your application or system.
  • Prioritization with Backlogs:
    • Use the backlog feature to prioritize technical debt items. By regularly grooming your backlog, you can ensure that the most critical technical debt items are addressed in upcoming sprints.
  • Jira Plugins:
    • There are several plugins available in the Atlassian Marketplace specifically designed to help manage technical debt. For example, the “Technical Debt Calculator” plugin can automatically calculate and track technical debt in your projects.
  • Dashboards and Reports:
    • Create custom dashboards to visualize technical debt metrics, such as the total number of technical debt items, their status, and trends over time.
    • Use Jira’s reporting capabilities to generate insights on how technical debt is being addressed, which can be useful for stakeholder communication.

Trello for Managing Technical Debt

Here are some different things that you can do to manage technical debt if you are using Trello:

  • Dedicated Technical Debt Board:
    • Create a separate Trello board dedicated to technical debt. This board can have lists like “To Do,” “In Progress,” “Review,” and “Done” to track the lifecycle of each debt item.
  • Labels for Categorization:
    • Use Trello’s labeling feature to categorize technical debt items. Different colors can represent different types or severity levels of debt.
  • Card Descriptions and Checklists:
    • Use the card description to provide detailed information about the technical debt, its origin, and its impact.
    • Checklists within cards can be used to break down the steps or tasks needed to address the technical debt.
  • Attachments:
    • Attach relevant documentation, screenshots, or links to the Trello card to provide more context about the technical debt.
  • Due Dates:
    • Set due dates for critical technical debt items to ensure they are addressed in a timely manner.

In conclusion, both Jira and Trello offer robust features that can be tailored to manage technical debt effectively. By setting up a structured approach and leveraging the capabilities of these tools, teams can ensure that technical debt is systematically identified, prioritized, and addressed.

7. Conclusion

In the fast-paced world of product management, the allure of innovation often overshadows the silent, accumulating weight of technical debt. However, as we’ve explored, this debt, if left unchecked, can stifle innovation, compromise user experience, and strain development teams.

It’s a delicate balance, ensuring that the drive for new features doesn’t come at the expense of a product’s foundational health. By understanding the nature of technical debt, employing strategic prioritization frameworks, and leveraging tools like Jira and Trello, Product Managers can navigate this intricate landscape. They can ensure that their products not only shine with new features but also stand strong on a robust, sustainable foundation.


What is technical debt?

Technical debt refers to the “cost” incurred when quick and easy solutions are chosen over the right ones in the realm of software development. It encompasses shortcuts in code, temporary fixes, and outdated libraries that, over time, can make a system complex and error-prone.

Why should Product Managers be concerned about technical debt?

Technical debt directly impacts the product’s health, user experience, and the team’s ability to deliver future innovations. Addressing it proactively can lead to better user experiences, fewer bugs, and higher user retention.

How can Product Managers manage technical debt?

Product Managers can manage technical debt by understanding its implications, prioritizing its reduction alongside feature development, setting clear expectations with stakeholders, and using prioritization frameworks like the Eisenhower Matrix and RICE Scoring Method.

What are the consequences of ignoring technical debt?

Ignoring technical debt can lead to slower feature releases, decreased product quality, lower team morale, and increased operational costs.

How can tools like Jira and Trello help in managing technical debt?

Jira and Trello offer features like custom issue types, labels, backlogs, dashboards, and plugins that can be tailored to identify, track, prioritize, and address technical debt systematically.

How often should teams review technical debt?

The frequency of technical debt reviews depends on the product’s complexity and the pace of the development cycle. For agile teams with rapid sprints, weekly sessions might be more appropriate. However, regular reviews, whether weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, are essential to stay proactive.

How does technical debt accumulate?

Technical debt accumulates due to factors like rapid development cycles, lack of code reviews, changing requirements, and making compromises in the codebase, either intentionally due to time constraints or unintentionally due to oversight.

Is addressing technical debt solely a developer’s responsibility?

No, addressing technical debt is a collective responsibility. While developers play a crucial role, Product Managers, design teams, and business stakeholders all have a part in understanding, prioritizing, and addressing technical debt.

Product Manager experienced in agile product management, Elena masters bridging the gap between Business and IT while building great teams. She excels in new product delivery while maintaining existing solutions and promoting best product management practices.